Frequency Modulation (FM) synthesis, a groundbreaking sound design technique pioneered by John Chowning, has left an indelible mark on the music industry. Renowned for its intricate harmonic textures and dynamic timbral possibilities, FM synthesis has become a staple in electronic music production.

While digital plugins have made FM synthesis more accessible, there remains a distinct charm and depth in hardware FM synthesizers. In this exploration, we present our picks for the five best FM synthesizers, devices that have not only defined genres but continue to inspire innovation.

Yamaha DX7

The Icon That Started It All

No discussion of FM synthesis is complete without mentioning the Yamaha DX7. Launched in 1983, this synthesizer single-handedly brought FM synthesis to the forefront of music production. Its crisp, digital tones and complex harmonic structures were a departure from the analog sounds dominating the era, leading to its iconic status.

The DX7 boasts a 6-operator FM engine, allowing for intricate sound design. Each operator can act as both modulator and carrier, providing a vast sonic palette. Its 32-algorithm structure offers extensive modulation possibilities, making it a powerhouse for crafting unique sounds ranging from electric pianos and basses to ethereal pads and piercing leads.

Despite its steep learning curve, due in part to its less-than-intuitive interface, the DX7’s impact on music is undeniable. It shaped the sound of the ’80s and continues to be a prized possession for vintage synth enthusiasts and modern producers seeking authentic FM tones.

Korg Volca FM

The Compact Powerhouse

The Korg Volca FM is a testament to the versatility and enduring appeal of FM synthesis. This compact, battery-powered instrument brings classic FM sound generation into a portable and accessible format. With its 3-voice polyphony and 6-operator setup, it closely mimics the architecture of classic FM synthesizers, making it an ideal choice for those seeking authentic FM sounds without the bulk or expense of vintage gear.

What sets the Volca FM apart is its user-friendly interface, which simplifies the traditionally complex process of FM sound design. Its built-in sequencer, chorus effect, and compatibility with DX7 patches enhance its utility and creative potential, making it a favorite among both beginners and seasoned professionals.

Yamaha Montage

The Modern Evolution

The Yamaha Montage represents the cutting-edge of FM synthesis technology. As the spiritual successor to the DX7, the Montage expands upon its predecessor’s legacy with its sophisticated 8-operator FM-X engine. This modern interpretation allows for more detailed control over sound shaping, with each operator equipped with a range of waveforms and advanced modulation options.

The Montage is not just an FM synthesizer; it’s a comprehensive sound design tool, combining FM synthesis with sample-based sounds and advanced effects processing. Its Super Knob, motion sequences, and extensive control options provide dynamic performance capabilities. For the serious musician or sound designer, the Montage offers unmatched depth and versatility, bridging the gap between classic FM synthesis and contemporary music production needs.

Elektron Digitone

The Sequencing Maestro

The Elektron Digitone stands out for its unique approach to FM synthesis, coupled with Elektron’s renowned sequencing capabilities. This 8-voice polyphonic synthesizer simplifies the FM algorithm structure, making it more accessible without sacrificing depth. Each voice consists of four operators, with multiple algorithm options, providing a balance between complexity and usability.

What truly sets the Digitone apart is its powerful sequencer, which allows for intricate patterning and parameter locking, giving users the ability to create evolving soundscapes and detailed rhythmic patterns. The Digitone excels in integrating FM synthesis into a performance or production environment, making it a top choice for those who value both sound design and sequencing flexibility.

Yamaha Reface DX

The Portable Innovator

The Yamaha Reface DX pays homage to the legendary DX7 while offering modern enhancements in a compact, portable form. This synthesizer features a 4-operator FM engine with intuitive controls, making FM synthesis more approachable for new users. Its 37 mini-keys and battery-powered operation ensure that FM creativity can travel anywhere.

The Reface DX also introduces a touch interface for editing and a range of built-in effects, expanding the sonic possibilities beyond traditional FM sounds. Its ability to store and recall presets, coupled with a straightforward interface, makes it an excellent choice for live performers and producers looking to add FM textures to their palette without the complexity traditionally associated with FM synthesis.


These five synthesizers encapsulate the evolution and enduring relevance of FM synthesis in music production. From the revolutionary Yamaha DX7 to the innovative Elektron Digitone, each synthesizer offers a unique take on FM sound design, catering to different needs, preferences, and workflows.

The resurgence of interest in FM synthesis is a testament to its unique sound and versatility

in shaping musical landscapes. Whether it’s the warm nostalgia of the ’80s, the cutting-edge sound of modern electronic music, or anything in between, FM synthesis continues to be a vital tool for musicians and producers.

The Yamaha DX7 set the standard, showing the world the vast possibilities of FM synthesis. Its complex, metallic timbres and crystal-clear digital sounds opened up new avenues for musical expression that are still being explored today. The Korg Volca FM, in turn, democratizes FM synthesis, proving that powerful sounds can come in small, user-friendly packages.

Meanwhile, the Yamaha Montage propels FM synthesis into the future, blending it with advanced sound technologies to create a synthesizer that’s as versatile as it is powerful. For those who love to tweak and experiment, the Elektron Digitone offers a unique approach, combining traditional FM synthesis with innovative sequencing capabilities.

Lastly, the Yamaha Reface DX offers portability without compromise. It provides a simplified yet powerful approach to FM synthesis, making it accessible to musicians on the go or those with limited studio space.

In conclusion, the best FM synthesizer for you will depend on your specific needs, preferences, and musical goals. Whether you’re a seasoned pro or just starting out, each of these synthesizers can open up new possibilities in your music production, offering a range of sounds that are as diverse as they are distinctive. FM synthesis, with its intricate harmonies and rich textures, remains a crucial element in the sound designer’s toolkit, capable of producing everything from the subtlety of soft bells to the intensity of a growling bass.

As technology advances, so too will the capabilities and applications of FM synthesis. But one thing is certain: the synthesizers we’ve explored here have set high standards in sound design and will continue to inspire music for years to come. Embrace the complexity, dive into the intricacies, and let these FM synthesizers be your guide in crafting the sounds of the future.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.